Sunday, September 22, 2019
Osteoporosis drugs - Essay Example There may be a lot of drugs already with established names and quality assurance but CalciD-Bifos can boast of the complete elements needed for osteoporosis and as an introductory product, a low cost that makes it affordable to a larger scale of customers. Low cost and quality seldom go together so that the success of the product is solely dependent on these factors. With the rising awareness of people and attention to their health, the need for osteoporosis drugs would be highly feasible. This will not only be true to older customers but to the young also because the drug can be used as a preventive measure so that a wide array of customers is foreseen. Osteoporosis drugs are often expensive so that the low cost of CalciD-Bifos will be a big factor to its success. Many people would be able to afford and avail of it especially for the prevention of the said disease to prevent more expensive treatments. To reach this goal, there will be advertisements on all media available to inform the people of the existence of the drug and its
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Interpretations of our Culture and gender Essay Culture is a representation of many aspects ranging from indigenous practices, eating habits and even clothing, thus culture is expressed all the way through many and various ways, customs, habits and behaviors. Nevertheless culture is also identified through language. Culture and language are so intertwined and in that complexity, culture can neither be separated from language nor can language be separated from culture. The way people choose to use language in various phases of life affiliates them to a one specific culture from the other. In this context, cultures are very different from one another, for instance in some cultures women have no voice in society and there are roles that they are not allowed to play. However, (Embers 2007) note that, Ã¢â¬Å"it must not be forgotten that some people can create a class through stratification or class which may end in discrimination or segregationÃ¢â¬ . In this case there is class of the poor and another of the rich and through these classes; people develop a culture befitting them. In matters of sex or gender, some ethnic groups are very discriminative towards women and the class of women has been given lesser roles in society than men. Women do not make decisions or are not involved in decision making processes or procedures. However, it has dawned in many cultures that women play vital roles for the survival of many societies. Many rigid cultures that have rendered women voiceless have realized women at many a times make brilliant decisions than expected. So, what have they done? Women have been listened to and many have been given powerful leadership positions in such cultures to make impacting decisions. Currently, in many cultures women are leaders and they have performed. So far so good, there is no major disagreement and the way forward for many cultures is not to use gender or sex as a whip, but to be specific let girls and boys in any cultural setting get equal education, position and or all other favors, then give them equal opportunities. Reference: Ember, C. Ember, M. (2007). Cultural Anthropology, 12th Edition. New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Models of Lesson Planning for Mathematics Introduction Planning the word it contains more weightage as compared to any other word. We can only achieve any target often a proper planning strategy. In planning what is target to achieve is our goal with the available resources. Planning also plays an important role in teaching-learning process. While, doing a proper planning in teaching the class environment got relaxed, teacher enjoys the teaching because the atmosphere as well the situations are properly arranged. By doing an intelligent planning a teacher avoids frustrations. Classroom transactions are also got smooth by using the strategies in a proper manner. Planning for Instructional Process Need for Planning Teaching occupies the central core of your life as a teacher. The teaching includes instruction in classroom tutorials, laboratory, workshops, and excursions, etc. Where teaching is not just an activity to transfer the education to the student but it involves modification in the behavior of the student. While planning, teacher must keep in mind the emphasis may be given to equal Weightage to all the content, not that one should given more focus and other is ignored completely. Presentation of material in a logical, systematic, and effective way The planning must cover the adequate coverage of subject matter The objective may be achieved in the given time The time factor and effort must be low and relevant The strategies must involve maximum development of child in minimum resources Advantages of Planning Planning means systematic organization of subject matter, better utilization and proper presentation of the resource: It fosters self-confidence and pride in our work The aids are properly explained and used by teacher Planning for one subject helps in integrating with other subjects A wide development in thinking about teaching is helpful to bring an order of teaching. Strategies for Planning Systematic planning of teaching work requires systematic organization of time in the institution. This could be done on long term and short term basis. Long term Planning: Long term planning may be termed as academic work planning that is it for a whole which is to come yet. List of holidays for schools including restricted, gazettes etc. As well as the different program to be organize by the school in the coming year that is activities to be organized as per the festivals as well as the tour and trips for the students. All teachers are allotted with their concerned subjects to be taught by them for the whole year, so that teachers may frame out their plan according to their need. Such plan give a ordered and fresh look to teaching learning practice in school as it was organized at the beginning. Teachers also plan theory courses as well as for practical activities, projects, and science exhibitions etc. Now we can say that a yearly plan is based on course purpose, course concepts, units, lessons, and evaluation items. Short term Planning: There are the specific activities which are planned by teacher for making their teaching effective which includes framing the lesson plan, use of teaching aid, in between so that the time may be utilized properly while delivering the lesson. Deciding the time limit, appropriate examples, real life incidence, use of appropriate aid all are included in it. Designs of Lesson Planning Defining a Lesson The term lesson is described in many ways by different educationists or teachers. A teacher takes teaching as a job to cover syllabus in the classroom; every class has 6-7 periods in a day (in general, a period runs over 35-40 minutes). A lesson is defined as a blueprint, a guide map, a plan for action. Lesson is a sequencing of teaching acts or events or episode in organized manner to generate a learning environment for our students. The lesson contains topics and sub-topic with necessary contents to be taught to the students in the classroom. Definitions N.L.Bossing in his book Ã¢â¬Å"Teaching in Secondary SchoolsÃ¢â¬ proposes the following definition of a lesson plan: Ã¢â¬Å"Lesson plan is the title given to a statement of all achievements to be realized and specific means by which these are to be attained as a result of the activities engaged day to day under the guidance of the teacher.Ã¢â¬ The Dictionary of Education defines a lesson plan as a teaching outline of the important points of a lesson arranged in the order in which they are to be presented; it may include objectives, questions to be asked, references to materials, evaluation, assignments, etc. Now you must be clear in mind that lesson planning is a product of short term or micro level planning involving: Identification of definite objectives, Selection of appropriate content and activities, Selection of procedures and methods for presentation of the content, Selection of evaluation exercises and Selection of follow up activities, etc. Approaches to Lesson Planning Generally various approaches are used to make a lesson plan. These approaches are Herbartian approach, Unit approach, Evaluation approach, and Project approach. A brief description is provided:- Herbartian Approach is based on apperceptive mass theory of learning. All the knowledge and information is to be given from outside by the teacher because the student is considered similar to a clean slate. For the students, if an old knowledge makes a base for new knowledge (his previous knowledge or experiences), it may be acquired easily and retained for a longer period. Herbart has given five steps:- Introduction, Presentation, Organistation, Comparison, and evaluation. The main focus is on content presentation. Unit Approach of Morrison is based on unit transaction and planning. The MorrisonÃ¢â¬â¢s lesson plan of teaching is cyclic; Morrison has given five steps for his Ã¢â¬ËcyclephaseÃ¢â¬â¢ of teaching:- Exploration, Presentation, Assimilation, Organisation, and Recitation. Evaluation Approach of B.S. Bloom in evaluation approach, education is objective centered not content centered. The focus in this approach is on objective based teaching and testing. It takes into consideration the learning objectives and teaching methods on the basis of the objectives and to assess learning outcomes. Then, a decision can be taken about objectives of learning are achieved or need to provide the revision. Project approach originated by Dewey and W.H.Kilpatrick stresses on group activity, social activity, self activity, and related to real life experiences. It is a pre-planned work completed by a person or group in social condition. Due to many reasons, it is not necessary that a lesson plan made by a teacher will be successful at every place and time. Many factors influence lesson planning such as Availability of teaching aids, Strength of students in the Class. Composition of the Class (Age wise). School Location (Area wise) The nature of the topic (Medium wise) etc. The list is not enough, few other factors from own experiences can be added. Writing a lesson Plan: Many written lesson plans are used by practicing teachers. A teacher needs some information about the class, students and their background before to attempt the lesson plan. In general, a Macro Lesson plan is divided into many stages/steps. We had introduced the approaches of lesson planning. Now, one can write a macro lesson plan based on different approaches. HERBARTIAN APPROACH The steps are given below: General information: regarding the topic, sub-topic, subject, time, class, and age level of children. Instructional Objectives (General Objectives and Specific Objectives): We know that at different grade levels, all subjects have general objectives, and specific objectives are written in behavioural terms. Specific Objectives focuses on the expected outcomes of teaching and the topic in a given time period. These specific objectives also known as instructional objectives, which are observable and measurable. It is required to identify the behavioural objectives and state these objectives in a clear and simple language. Instructional Aids: The development of a new lesson plan is based on the standard and knowledge of students. Instructional are used by the teacher to make understand the chapter or topic easily. One picture delivers the message of thousand words. Teacher assumes that the previous knowledge of students related to the content can test and teaching will become easy through aids. Introduction: in this step topic is introduced mainly through introductory questions or by creating the appropriate situations. New knowledge or information of students is linked with their previous knowledge by assuming and testing. Presentation: In presentation the ways of relevant content is presented. A teacher develops the lesson Plan by asking many questions and receiving responses presented by the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢. StudentsÃ¢â¬â¢ response helps the teacher for further presentation of the content. The presentation stage is interactive in the real classroom situation. It depends on teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ communication and teaching skills like questioning, explaining, giving demonstration and providing reinforcement on desirable student behaviour. Recapitulation: This step helps the teacher to find out the extent of learning that occurs during instruction. The teacher does this by asking several questions. This stage provides feedback to the teacher about the teaching learning process. Blackboard summary: In the classroom during the instruction, the board is used by the teacher to write the teaching points, summary and explanations. Board is used simultaneously when lesson is being delivered in the classroom. Home Assignment: At last, in the end of the teaching session, thought provoking, suitable questions or activities must be planned and given to the students. It gives a chance of revision or practice to the students. Home assignment also gives an opportunity to students to assimilate, whatever they have learned. 3. EVALUATION APPROACH The design of lesson plan according to this approach consists of three aspects: Input, Process and Output. Input: It contains the identification of objectives in behavioral terms. These are known as Expected Behavioural Outcomes (EBOs). During this the entering behavior of the learners is also identified. With the help of instructional objectives, the sequence of instructional procedure is determined. These objectives are classified into four categories: Knowledge, Understanding, Application and Creativity. These objectives can be transformed in behavioural terms. Process: This is an interactive stage when teacher actually communicating with students in the classroom. For effective presentation of the content, teacher has to choose different teaching strategies, audio-visual, and all support materials. Output: This aspect of instructional procedure refers to real learning outcomes (RLOs). This is equivalent to terminal behaviour which is measured by using oral and written questions. This aspect is considered for measuring of the desirable change in behaviour of students. Illustration of Lesson Plan Format of Presentation: Effective teaching needs proper planning, transaction in the classroom and feedback. Practically there are three stages of a planned lesson: Pre-active, Interactive, and Post- Active. Pre-active stage is a stage of planning before going to the classroom. The Interactive stage is a stage of interaction between teacher and students in the real classroom situation. Post active stage is a stage of self evaluation of our teaching work. There is not be a single format for writing a lesson plan because it varies from teacher to teacher and subject to subject, the only thing which can be suggested is that it should be a well-organised structure, it follows basic fundamental parts of a lesson. Some of the formats based on different approaches to lesson planning. TeachersÃ¢â¬â¢ are free to make changes according to the objectives you plan to achieve and the nature of the subject etc. (i) Herbartian Lesson Plan Format Subject: Date: Unit: School: Topic: Class: Duration: Period: General Objectives: Specific Objectives: Teaching Aids: Method: Previous Knowledge: Introduction: Statement of the Topic/Aim: Presentation or Development of the Lesson: OR Recapitulation: Black Board Summary: Home Assignment: Reference: Note: Order of S. No. 1 to 5 may be changed according to your needs. In presentation/development objectives, teaching-learning activities and evaluation are in relation to particular teaching point/content. If evaluation of students learning is done for each teaching act/episode, then you may ignore recapitulation at the fag end of the lesson. Black board summary should be developed as the lesson progresses. ii) Blooms or Evaluation Lesson Plan Format Subject: Date: Unit: School: Lesson: Class: Duration: Specific Objectives: Previous Knowledge: Introduction: Statement of the Topic/Aim: Presentation: 6) Evaluation: 7) Home Work: 8) References: Note The objectives are to be written in behavioural terms. The teaching activities are to be related to the learning structures. Black Board Summary should be developed as the lesson progresses. iii) RCEM Lesson Plan Format Date: Subject: School: Unit: Class: Topic/Lesson: Duration: Concepts : Teaching Aids : Previous Knowledge : Introduction: Statement of the Aim/Topic : Presentation: Black Board Summary: Home Assignment: References: Note RCEM is Regional College of Education, Mysore. Concepts are to be identified through content analysis. Black Board Summary to be developed as the lesson progresses. Characteristics of Lesson Plan You may plan your lesson based on any format discussed above, but a good lesson plan must have following characteristics: It must be flexible; Its contents are organized in the light of attainable objectives; It is rich with respect to students activities and evaluation exercises; It has link with the previous and future lesson; It includes relevant home assignment and activities for students.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Missing Example Figures The Effects of Subliminal Advertising The power of subliminal advertising in effecting consumers is still unproven. The concept of subliminal advertising is based on a "threshold". "This [is] thought to be a fixed point below which awareness does not extend." (Sutherland: p.30) If a word is flashed on a television screen for 50 milliseconds a person would not be conscious of it. If the time of the exposure is increased the word crosses the threshold and a person becomes consciously aware of the word. This process varies within the same person from day to day. For example, if a person is hungry while watching television, advertisements of food will be noticed more than if that same person just ate. Sometimes we are more alert than at other times. The effects of being tired, using drugs or alcohol can also vary when a stimulus is registered. This is an example of a subliminal advertisement. In the bottom of the glass it says "U BUY". This message subliminally tells the consumer to buy their certain product, hoping for their sales to increase. The notion of subliminal advertising grew within the 1950's. A man named James Vicary who inserted subliminal messages in movies "sparked the first large-scale subliminal scare, and his projections into the subconscious, though never documented or replicated, are still frequently cited as "evidence" of the insidious power of subliminals." (Subliminal Survives) Although sales of cola increased 18% and sales pf popcorn increased 58%, Vicary later downplayed the effectiveness of subliminal advertising due to the small amount of research he had collected from it. In the 21st century, subliminal messages are still thought to be us... ...inal Advertising) There are many positive aspects to some subliminal techniques. An example of this is tapes which aid people to loose weight or stop smoking. In turn, they have become a popular self-help fad. Subliminal advertising, wether it works or not, will no doubt be utilized indefinately by companies to advertise their products. Works Cited Elliston, Jon. March 25, 2001. Hidden Persuasion?. [on-line], xx. Available: www.parascope.com/articles/03971/sublim1.htm. Elliston, Jon. March 25, 2001. Subliminal Survives. [on-line], xx. Available: www.parascope.com/articles/0497/sublim6.htm No Author. March 14, 2001. Subliminal Advertising. [on-line], xx. Available: www.snopes2.com/business/hidden/popcorn.html. Sutherland, Max. 1993. Advertising and the Mind of the Consumer. Australia: Allen and Unwin Pty Ltd. The Effects of Subliminal Advertising Essay -- Marketing Advertising Missing Example Figures The Effects of Subliminal Advertising The power of subliminal advertising in effecting consumers is still unproven. The concept of subliminal advertising is based on a "threshold". "This [is] thought to be a fixed point below which awareness does not extend." (Sutherland: p.30) If a word is flashed on a television screen for 50 milliseconds a person would not be conscious of it. If the time of the exposure is increased the word crosses the threshold and a person becomes consciously aware of the word. This process varies within the same person from day to day. For example, if a person is hungry while watching television, advertisements of food will be noticed more than if that same person just ate. Sometimes we are more alert than at other times. The effects of being tired, using drugs or alcohol can also vary when a stimulus is registered. This is an example of a subliminal advertisement. In the bottom of the glass it says "U BUY". This message subliminally tells the consumer to buy their certain product, hoping for their sales to increase. The notion of subliminal advertising grew within the 1950's. A man named James Vicary who inserted subliminal messages in movies "sparked the first large-scale subliminal scare, and his projections into the subconscious, though never documented or replicated, are still frequently cited as "evidence" of the insidious power of subliminals." (Subliminal Survives) Although sales of cola increased 18% and sales pf popcorn increased 58%, Vicary later downplayed the effectiveness of subliminal advertising due to the small amount of research he had collected from it. In the 21st century, subliminal messages are still thought to be us... ...inal Advertising) There are many positive aspects to some subliminal techniques. An example of this is tapes which aid people to loose weight or stop smoking. In turn, they have become a popular self-help fad. Subliminal advertising, wether it works or not, will no doubt be utilized indefinately by companies to advertise their products. Works Cited Elliston, Jon. March 25, 2001. Hidden Persuasion?. [on-line], xx. Available: www.parascope.com/articles/03971/sublim1.htm. Elliston, Jon. March 25, 2001. Subliminal Survives. [on-line], xx. Available: www.parascope.com/articles/0497/sublim6.htm No Author. March 14, 2001. Subliminal Advertising. [on-line], xx. Available: www.snopes2.com/business/hidden/popcorn.html. Sutherland, Max. 1993. Advertising and the Mind of the Consumer. Australia: Allen and Unwin Pty Ltd.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
The Paperless(?) Office 1. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the paperless office? Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã There are many advantages to having a paperless office. One advantage is that companies are able to greatly reduce the amount of paper that they use. Not only does this help the environment, it helps cut costs within the organization. Companies are also able to improve service through implementing the paperless office. This is because communication is immediate and does not get lost in a pile of papers on someone's desk. A paperless office can also save the company money. This can be seen in the example of Washington Mutual Savings Bank of Seattle. The bank automated more than one-hundred different forms and estimates that they are saving upwards of one million per year. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã One disadvantage to having a paperless office is the issue security. How does a company make sure that only the eyes the document is intended for, are the only eyes that see it? Also how does a company know an electronic communication is authentic? Another issue is privacy. How does a company make sure that when an electronic communication is sent only the person it is intended for will read it? How does a company make sure private information does not make the evening news? 2. Are certain types of information more readily amenable to digital processing in a paperless office than others? If so, why; if not, why not? Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã It would seem that some types of information are better in paperless form, while some are not. Implementing an e-mail system can do wonders for companies. The e-mail sessions allow managers to get more information across to the employees and vice versa. This is a way to make sure everyone will access to the same information. A paperless office is a good way to send and receive reports. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Another area that is conducive to a paperless office is such companies that put large volumes of books and papers on CD-ROM. A single CD-ROM can hold a whole room full of books. This cuts down on the physical space a company must devote to paper storage. 3. How might book publishing change as the technology of the paperless office continues to develop? Will books become obsolete? Why or why not? Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The book publishing industry will have to grow and change in relation to the changing technology. As the paperless office gains more and more popularity, one will begin to see more and more documents being on CD-ROM and also on the Internet.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
The World of Telecommunications We are in the midst of a global information revolution driven by the convergence and proliferation of information and communication technologies. The telecommunications sector is changing at warp speed, driven by technological innovation that results in new equipment and services, and also by new entrants and alliances between companies with experience in a wide range of information industries from telecommunications to broadcasting to computer hardware and software to publishing. Three major trends are driving these changes: the rapid introduction of new technologies and services;the restructuring of the telecommunications sector; and globalization of economies and of communications. Together these developments are not only changing the world of telecommunications, but the ways people work, learn, and interact. The Death of Distance"The death of distance as a determinant of the cost of communications will probably be the single most important economic force shaping society in the fi rst half of the next century." The death of distance could have profound implications for both individuals and organizations. The ability to work "anytime, anywhere" allows "road warriors" to work without offices on planes, in hotels, and at client sites, and enables information workers to telecommute from their homes rather than traveling to work. This flexibility can be two-edged for individuals, who can work wherever they choose but may never escape the "virtual workplace." Organizations may reduce their overhead costs and improve their productivity, but they must also learn how to manage their decentralized work force. One major technological trend is the extension of "information superhighways" in the form of broadband networks; another is the increasing ubiquity of communications using wireless technologies (that will, however, initially provide access to squirts rather than floods of information). Personal communications networks using microcellular technology will allow people in urban areas not only to talk on pocket-sized telephones, but to transmit and receive data using wireless modems. In rural and developing areas, these services may be available from low earth-orbiting (LEO) satellite systems. On an international level, the death of distance has profound implications for the globalization of industries and nation al economies. ... ...munities, Growth, Competitiveness, Employment: The Challenges and Ways Forward into the 21st Century, (White Paper). Brussels: Commission of the European Communities, Europe and the Global Information Society, Brussels: European Commission, 1994. Industry Canada, The Canadian Information Highway, Ottawa: Industry Canada, April 1994. Information Highway Advisory Council, Canada's Information Highway: Providing New Dimensions for Learning, Creativity and Entrepreneurship, Ottawa: Industry Canada, November 1994. Industry Canada, 1994. The G-7 is an association of seven major industrialized world powers: Canada, France, Germany, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States . Commission of the European Communities, 1994. Hudson, Heather E., Global Connections: International Telecommunications Infrastructure and Policy, New York: Wiley, 1997, pp. 279-80. Cane, Alan, "Transforming the Way We Live and Work," "International Telecommunications: Financial Times Survey," Financial Times, October 3, 1995, pp. 1-2. Gregston, Brent, "Power and Privilege," Internet World, November 1995, p. 96. Schwankert, Steven, "Dragons at the Gates, " Internet World, November 1995, p.112.
Monday, September 16, 2019
Research involving laboratory animals is important to people and to our quality of life. In the past century, most inhabitants of this planet have experienced an unprecedented rise in living standards, life expectancy and personal opportunity, in large part due to the many ways chemicals have been put to work for us. For example, drugs whose effects range from curing previously fatal bacterial infections, reducing the impact of AIDS, minimizing heart disease, decreasing age- related wrinkles, to reducing hair loss are widely available today. The many benefits of the diverse uses of our natural resources are an outcome of careful scientific research and of using chemicals in an appropriate and safe manner. Toxicologists, the scientists who help determine the limits for safe use of materials, use modern technological research methods, including tests on animals, to protect human and animal health and the environment. What is toxicology? Toxicology is the study of how chemical substances interact with living systems and affect normal processes, and the use of this information to predict safe exposure levels. Toxicological research and testing helps us to live safely and to derive benefit from natural and synthetic substances while avoiding harm. Toxicologists are involved in the evaluation of household products, medicines and the effects of incidental and occupational exposure to natural and manufactured substances. Toxicology also helps us develop the best treatments in the event that accidental overexposure does occur. What is safe? Toxicologists know that no substance is risk-free. One fundamental tenet of the science of toxicology is that all chemicals can cause harm at some level of exposure, summed up in the phrase Ã¢â¬Å"the dose makes the poison. Ã¢â¬ This means that exposure to a specific small amount of any substance will have no detectable impact on normal biological processes and is considered safe. Some doses actually have beneficial effects, as we all know from use of medicines. But increasing exposure to most substances will, at some point, cause harmful effects. Substances are considered toxic at that level. For example, digitalis is a plant product that has been used with great benefit to treat heart irregularities, but too large a dose will cause death. Oxygen provides another example of how increasing the dose can turn a safe compound into a toxic one. Oxygen is essential to life and part of the air we breathe, but when given at high concentrations it can cause lung and eye damage in infants. Sometimes the possible negative effects of a substance are outweighed by the positive benefits at that dose. Dogs are treated with heartworm medication because the risk of death from heartworms is much greater than the risk of toxicity of the medication. Similarly, chemotherapeutic agents are used to destroy cancerous cells even though they may damage healthy cells in the process. Prior to the use of new substances, toxicologists and policy makers are responsible for determining the range of exposure that is safe and the level of exposure that may be harmful to human health or to the environment. The effect of the level of exposure is also important when toxicologists assess the risk caused by a substance already present in the environment. The benefits of using a new substance, or the costs of removing an environmental contaminant, are viewed relative to the perception of what is safe.